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K-6 Standards with Student-friendly I Can statements
Standards for Mathematical Practice
The standards for mathematical practice tell us what students should be doing every day in classrooms to learn mathematics with understanding and to gain the ability to apply it whenever needed. These are cross-cutting standards that should be woven to some extent into every lesson plan.
1) Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2) Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Students should be asked to explain their reasoning about how they solved problems, in small groups and to the whole class.
3) Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Reasoning involves making logical arguments that show how one step proceeds from the previous step. Students should also learn to listen to other students explanations and provide feedback either I agree with that or I dont understand what you said or I have another way to think about that, etc.
4) Model with mathematics.
Whenever students use manipulatives to show a mathematical process, or drawings, or constructions, they are making models. Equations are also models of real-world situations. Mathematical models take a real-world situation and make it abstract, in order to see patterns, connections, and ways to solve the problem.
5) Use appropriate tools strategically.
Tools include manipulatives, drawings, calculators, software simulations (like the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives or Geometers Sketchpad), etc.
6) Attend to precision.
7) Look for and make use of structure.
8) Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Kindergarten
In Kindergarten, instructional time should focus on two critical areas:
(1) representing and comparing whole numbers, initially with sets of objects;
(2) describing shapes and space.
More learning time in Kindergarten should be devoted to number than to other topics.
Know number names and the count sequence.K.CC.1 Count to 100 by ones and by tens. I can count to 100 by ones and by tens.K.CC.2 Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).I can count on from any number, instead of always starting at 1.K.CC.3 Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).I can write numbers up to 20. I can write a number to show how many in a group.Count to tell the number of objects. K.CC.4 Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.
a. When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.
b. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.
c. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.I can count how many are in a group.K.CC.5 Count to answer how many? questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.I can count out objects when Im told how many. Compare numbers. K.CC.6 Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies. (Include groups with up to ten objects.)I can say if one group has more, less or the same number of things than another group. K.CC.7 Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.I can say if one written number is larger or smaller than another (between 1 and 10).Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from. K.OA.1 Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings (drawings need not show details, but should show the mathematics in the problem), sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.I can show simple addition and subtraction problems with objects, drawings and numbers.K.OA.2 Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.I can solve putting together and taking apart problems with objects or drawings.K.OA.3 Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).I can make pairs of numbers from any number up to 10.K.OA.4 For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.I can figure out how many to add to a number to make 10.K.OA.5 Fluently add and subtract within 5.I can quickly add or subtract up to 5 without counting.Work with numbers 11-19 to gain foundations for place value.K.NBT.1 Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (such as 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.I can show how the numbers from 11 to 19 are made up of one group of ten plus some more.
Describe and compare measurable attributes. K.MD.1 Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object.K.MD.2 Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has more of/less of the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter.I can say which object is longer or shorter, and heavier or lighter.Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category. K.MD.3 Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count. (Limit category counts to be less than or equal to 10.)I can sort objects by color or shape and tell which group has more. Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres). K.G.1 Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.I can name the shape of flat objects like squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, and solid objects like cubes, cones, cyliners (or tubes) and spheres (or balls).
I can say if one object is above, below, next to, in front of or behind another.K.G.2 Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.K.G.3 Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, flat) or three-dimensional (solid).Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes. K.G.4 Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/corners) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).I can say how two shapes are different or the same.K.G.5 Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.K.G.6 Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, "can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?I can put together shapes to make new shapes.
1st Grade
In Grade 1, instructional time should focus on four critical areas:
(1) developing understanding of addition, subtraction, and strategies for addition and subtraction within 20;
(2) developing understanding of whole number relationships and place value, including grouping in tens and ones;
(3) developing understanding of linear measurement and measuring lengths as iterating length units; and
(4) reasoning about attributes of, and composing and decomposing geometric shapes.
Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction. 1.OA.1 Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.I can solve word problems with adding and subtracting up to 10+10, using strategies.1.OA.2 Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.I can solve word problems with 3 numbers.Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. 1.OA.3 Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract. Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.) (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.)I know that numbers can be added in any order.1.OA.4 Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 - 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.I can use strategies to add and subtract when I need to.Add and subtract within 20. 1.OA.5 Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).1.OA.6 Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 4 = 13 3 1 = 10 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).I know all the addition pairs up to 5+5.Work with addition and subtraction equations. 1.OA.7 Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2.I can tell if an equation is true or false.1.OA.8 Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = ? 3, 6 + 6 = ?.
I can find a missing number in an equation.Extend the counting sequence. 1.NBT.1 Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral.I can count to 120 starting at any number.
I can read and write numbers up to 120.Understand place value. 1.NBT.2 Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases:
a. 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones called a ten.
b. The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
c. The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).I can tell how many tens and ones there are in any number up to 99.1.NBT.3 Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.I can tell which number is larger up to 99 by looking at the tens and ones.Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract. 1.NBT.4 Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.I can add a two-digit number and a one-digit number and explain how I did it. I can add a two-digit number and a multiple of 10 and explain how I did it. 1.NBT.5 Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used.I can say what 10 more or 10 less than a number is without counting. I can explain how I got my answer.1.NBT.6 Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 from multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. I can subtract 10s from any number less than 99 using base ten blocks or strategies. I can explain how I did it.
Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units. 1.MD.1 Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object.I can say which object is longer, which is shorter, by comparing them.1.MD.2 Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps.I can measure the length of things.Tell and write time. 1.MD.3 Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks.(This is an introduction to clocks and how we use them to tell time. Student look at make-believe clocks that are set to hours or half-hours and learn the pattern of 12:30, 1:00, 1:30, etc. There is no I Can statement because this standard is just exploratory.Represent and interpret data. 1.MD.4 Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.I can make a bar graph and use it to compare numbers.Reason with shapes and their attributes. 1.G.1 Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); for a wide variety of shapes; build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes.I can build or draw a shape when its described to me. I know that the color or direction or size of a shape does not determine what kind of shape it is.1.G.2 Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. (Students do not need to learn formal names such as right rectangular prism.)I can put together shapes to make new shapes.1.G.3 Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares.(This is an introduction to fractions using shapes. Students should learn that halves and fourths or quarters of the shape need to be of equal size equal shares. They should state how many halves or quarters are in the whole shape. They do not use the symbol for the fractions at this grade, only the fraction names.)2nd Grade
In 2nd Grade, instructional time should focus on four critical areas:
(1) extending understanding of base-ten notation;
(2) building fluency with addition and subtraction;
(3) using standard units of measure; and
(4) describing and analyzing shapes.
Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.2.OA.1 Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.I can solve many different kinds of word problems involving adding and subtracting.Add and subtract within 20. 2.OA.2 Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies. By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers.I can add and subtract numbers less than 10 in my head.Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication.2.OA.3 Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.I can tell if a number is even or odd by counting by twos.2.OA.4 Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends.I can use repeated addition or skip counting to find the number of objects in an array.Understand place value. 2.NBT.1 Understand that the three digits of a three-digit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases:
a. 100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens called a hundred.
b. The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones).I can tell the number of hundreds, tens and ones in a three-digit number.2.NBT.2 Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s, 10s, and 100I can count starting at any number less than 1000.
I can skip-count by 5s, 10s and 100s.2.NBT.3 Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.I can read and write numbers to 1000.2.NBT.4 Compare two three-digit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.I can tell which number is larger up to 1000.Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.2.NBT.5 Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtractionI can add and subtract numbers less than 100 in writing, and I can explain how I did it.2.NBT.6 Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.I can solve a problem by adding 3 or 4 numbers (the numbers should be less than 100).2.NBT.7 Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three-digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds.I can add or subtract numbers up to 1000 using base ten blocks or by writing it out. I know that I add or subtract ones from ones, tens from tens and hundreds from hundreds, regrouping if I need to.2.NBT.8 Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100-900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100-900.I can add or subtract 10 or 100 from any number less than 1000 in my head.2.NBT.9 Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations. (Explanations may be supported by drawings or objects.) I can explain the strategies I use to add or subtract two-digit numbers using mental math.Measure and estimate lengths in standard units.2.MD.1 Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.I can measure the length of an object using a ruler, yard stick, meter stick or measuring tape.2.MD.2 Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen.I can measure the same object using both inches and feet, or feet and yards, or centimeters and meters2.MD.3 Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters.I can estimate the length of objects in inches, feet, centimeters or meters.2.MD.4 Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit.I can find how much longer one object is than another by measuring them and subtracting.Relate addition and subtraction to length.2.MD.5 Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.I can solve problems about lengths of objects using addition and subtraction. I can show the problem in a drawing and write an equation for it.2.MD.6 Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, , and represent whole-number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram.I can use a number line diagram to show addition and subtraction within 100.Work with time and money. 2.MD.7 Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.mI can tell time to the nearest 5 minutes on both kinds of clocks.2.MD.8 Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ (dollars) and (cents) symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have?I can solve problems with money, like If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have?Represent and interpret data.2.MD.9 Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units.I can make a line plot to show lengths of objects I measured.2.MD.10 Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph.I can make a picture graph or bar graph from data, and solve problems with using the numbers on the graph.Reason with shapes and their attributes.2.G.1 Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces. Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes. (Sizes are compared directly or visually, not compared by measuring.)I can draw shapes if I know the number of angles, sides or faces. I can identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes.2.G.2 Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of same-size squares and count to find the total number of them.I can divide a rectangle into same-size squares by making rows and columns, and then count the total number of squares. (This is an introduction to multiplication, related to 2.OA.4)2.G.3 Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape.(This is an follow-up to 1.G.3, an introduction to fractions. In second grade they add thirds, and also recognize that some shapes can be divided into halves, thirds or fourths in different ways. Students do not use the symbols for the fractions at this grade, only the fraction names.)
3rd Grade
In 3rd Grade, instructional time should focus on four critical areas:
(1) developing understanding of multiplication and division and strategies for multiplication and division within 100;
Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.
Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.
Multiply and divide within 100.
Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic. (SBAC)
(2) developing understanding of fractions, especially unit fractions (fractions with numerator 1);
Develop understanding of fractions as numbers. (SBAC)
(3) developing understanding of the structure of rectangular arrays and of area;
Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects.
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition. (SBAC)
(4) describing and analyzing two-dimensional shapes.
Reason with shapes and their attributes. (SBAC)
Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.3.OA.1 Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 7. I know that I should multiply to find the total number when I have, for example, 5 groups of 7 things. This means 5 7.3.OA.2 Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 8.I can make up a situation for a division problem like 56 8. I know this means that 56 objects are divided into 8 equal groups.3.OA.3 Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. I can solve word problems involving multiplication and division with single-digit numbers.3.OA.4 Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 ? = 48, 5 = __ 3, 6 6 = ?.I can find the missing number in multiplication or division equations like 8 ? = 48.Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.3.OA.5 Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. Examples: If 6 4 = 24 is known, then 4 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 5 2 can be found by 3 5 = 15 then 15 2 = 30, or by 5 2 = 10 then 3 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 5 = 40 and 8 2 = 16, one can find 8 7 as 8 (5 + 2) = (8 5) + (8 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.) (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.)I can rewrite a multiplication problem in several different ways.3.OA.6 Understand division as an unknown-factor problem. For example, divide 32 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8. I can use a multiplication fact to find the answer to a division problem.
Multiply and divide within 100. 3.OA.7 Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 5 = 40, one knows 40 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of one-digit numbers.I know all the products of numbers from 1 to 10.Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic. 3.OA.8 Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. (This standard is limited to problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers; students should know how to perform operations in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations)).I can solve two-step word problems using addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. I can write an equation to show what I do to solve the problem. I can estimate what the answer should be to know if Im close.3.OA.9 Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends. I can find patterns in the addition and multiplication table and explain how they work.Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. 3.NBT.1 Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.I can round numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.3.NBT.2 Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. (A range of algorithms may be used.)I can add and subtract numbers up to 1000. 3.NBT.3 Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 (e.g., 9 80, 5 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. (A range of algorithms may be used.)I can multiply a one-digit number times a multiple of 10.Develop understanding of fractions as numbers.3.NF.1 Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b. (Grade 3 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8.)I know that a fraction means to divide a whole object into equal size parts.
I know that the numerator of the fraction tells how many of the equal size parts there are.3.NF.2 Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.
a. Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line.
b. Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line. (Grade 3 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8.)I can show where fractions are on the number line, including fractions that are larger than 1.
I know that fractions on a number line mark the endpoint of a fraction piece of that size.
3.NF.3 Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size. (Grade 3 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8.)
a. Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line.
b. Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions (e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3), Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
c. Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3=3/1; recognize that 6/1=6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram.
d. Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their sizes. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, < and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.I can tell if two fractions are equivalent (equal) or which fraction is larger or smaller by using fraction circles or fraction bars.
I can use the symbols < and > to compare fractions.
I can tell which fraction is larger or smaller if they have the same numerator or the same denominator.
I can write a whole number as a fraction with a denominator of 1.Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects.3.MD.1 Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.I can tell and write time to the nearest minute. I can solve word problems involving intervals of time.3.MD.2 Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l). (Excludes compound units such as cm^3 and finding the geometric volume of a container.) Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem. (Excludes multiplicative comparison problems (problems involving notions of times as much.)I can measure and estimate volume of liquids in liters and mass of objects in grams and kilograms.
Represent and interpret data.3.MD.3 Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step how many more and how many less problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets.I can draw a bar graph or a picture graph and answer questions about the data on the graph.3.MD.4 Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate unitswhole numbers, halves, or quarters.I can draw a line plot from data I measure using a ruler marked in inches, halves and fourths of an inch.Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.3.MD.5 Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement.
a. A square with side length 1 unit, called a unit square, is said to have one square unit of area, and can be used to measure area.
b. A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units.I can find the area of a rectangle or square by measuring it with unit squares.
3.MD.6 Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units). 3.MD.7 Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.
a. Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths.
b. Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole-number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent whole-number products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning.
c. Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths a and b + c is the sum of a b and a c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning.
d. Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into non-overlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems. I can find the area of a rectangle by multiplying the length times width. I can explain why this works.
I can find the area of figures that are made up of rectangles.3.MD.8 Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different area or with the same area and different perimeter.I can find the perimeter of a shape made up of straight sides, or work backward to find the length of a missing side.Reason with shapes and their attributes. 3.G.1 Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories.I can draw rectangles, squares, and rhombuses and I can explain how they are alike and different. (Note: the terms parallel and perpendicular are not introduced until 4th grade.) 3.G.2 Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal area, and describe the area of each part is 1/4 of the area of the shape.I can divide a shape into parts with equal areas and label each part with the correct fraction.4th Grade
In 4th Grade, instructional time should focus on three critical areas:
(1) developing understanding and fluency with multi-digit multiplication, and developing understanding of dividing to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends;
Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.
Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers.
Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. (SBAC)
(2) developing an understanding of fraction equivalence, addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators, and multiplication of fractions by whole numbers;
Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.
Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.
Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions. (SBAC)
(3) understanding that geometric figures can be analyzed and classified based on their properties, such as having parallel sides, perpendicular sides, particular angle measures, and symmetry.
Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems. 4.OA.1 Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.I know that five times as many of five times larger means to multiply.4.OA.2 Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.I can solve multiplication problems like this one: A small box of nails weighs 8 pounds. A large box weighs 10 times as much. How much does the large box weigh?
4.OA.3 Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.I can solve multi-step word problems like this one: A class has 9 boxes of crayons at the beginning of the year. Each box has 8 crayons in it. At the end of the year, 13 crayons have been broken and thrown away. How many crayons are left?
I can explain whether my answers make sense.Gain familiarity with factors and multiples. 4.OA.4 Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1-100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is prime or composite.I can find factors and multiples within the 10x10 multiplication table. I can tell if a number is prime or composite.Generate and analyze patterns. 4.OA.5 Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule Add 3 and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.I can create a pattern of numbers or shapes if Im given the rule.
Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers.4.NBT.1 Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.)I understand the idea of place value. I know that each place to the left is 10 times greater, so 700 = ten 70s and 20 = ten 2s.4.NBT.2 Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. I understand the idea of place value. I can write a number up to 1,000,000 in expanded form. For example, 738 = 700 + 30 + 8.4.NBT.3 Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place. I can round numbers to any given place.Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. 4.NBT.4 Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.)I can add and subtract any multi-digit numbers fluently.4.NBT.5 Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. I can multiply a four digit number by a one digit number and I can multiply two two-digit numbers. I can explain why my procedure works.4.NBT.6 Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.I can divide a four digit number by a one digit number and explain why my procedure works.Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering. 4.NF.1 Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n a)/(n b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)I can create equivalent fractions by scaling up, and I can show this process using visual fraction models.4.NF.2 Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. I can compare the size of two fractions by creating common denominators or common numerators, or by comparing them to benchmark fractions like .Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. 4.NF.3 Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)
a. Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.
b. Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.
c. Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
d. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.I understand that a fraction like 3/8 means three 1/8 pieces. I can use this idea to add or subtract fractions with the same denominator.
I can add or subtract fractions to solve everyday problems, including ones that involve mixed numbers.4.NF.4 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)
a. Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 (1/4).
b. Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 (2/5) as 6 (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n (a/b) = (n a)/b.)
c. Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?I can solve word problems that involve multiplying a fraction by a whole number. Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions. 4.NF.5 Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100. For example, express 3/10 as 30/100 and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100. (Addition and subtraction with unlike denominators in general is not a requirement at this grade.) I can add fractions with denominators of 10 and 100. For example, I can add 7/10 + 4/100.4.NF.6 Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram. I can write a fraction with a denominator of 10 or 100 as a decimal number.4.NF.7 Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model. I can compare two decimal numbers in tenths and hundredths. For example, I know that .7 < .45 because 7/10 is greater than 45/100.Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. 4.MD.1 Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example: Know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), . I can measure length, volume, mass or weight and time in standard and metric units. I can convert measurements within a system, such as inches to feet, pounds to ounces, minutes to seconds, centimeters to meters and milliliters to liters.4.MD.2 Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.I can solve word problems involving measurements, including ones that use fractions or decimals.4.MD.3 Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.I can use formulas to solve problems that involve perimeter and area.Represent and interpret data. 4.MD.4 Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.I can solve problems with data that is shown on a line plot, including data given in fractions.Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles. 4.MD.5 Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:
a. An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a one-degree angle, and can be used to measure angles.
b. An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.I know what an angle is.4.MD.6 Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure.I can measure angles using a protractor.4.MD.7 Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.I can solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles.Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles. 4.G.1 Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.I can draw lines, line segments and rays. I can identify parallel and perpendicular lines.4.G.2 Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.I can name figures based on the number of sides they have and whether any sides are parallel or perpendicular. This includes triangles, quadrilaterals (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, parallelograms), pentagons, hexagons4.G.3 Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.I can show whether a figure has a line of symmetry.5th Grade
In 5th Grade, instructional time should focus on three critical areas:
(1) developing fluency with addition and subtraction of fractions, and developing understanding of the multiplication of fractions and of division of fractions in limited cases (unit fractions divided by whole numbers and whole numbers divided by unit fractions);
Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.
Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions. (SBAC)
(2) extending division to 2-digit divisors, integrating decimal fractions into the place value system and developing understanding of operations with decimals to hundredths, and developing fluency with whole number and decimal operations;
Understand the place value system.
Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths. (SBAC)
(3) developing understanding of volume.
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition. (SBAC)
Write and interpret numerical expressions. 5.OA.1 Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols.I can evaluate expressions with parentheses like 3 + (7 8).5.OA.2 Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2 as 2 (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product.I can read mathematical expressions. For example, 2 x (8 + 7) is add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2.Analyze patterns and relationships. 5.OA.3 Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule Add 3 and the starting number 0, and given the rule Add 6 and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so. I can write out a pattern when I know a rule. For example, if the rule is Add 3 and the starting number is zero, I would write 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 etc.
I can put two patterns side by side to make sets of ordered pairs. For example, the rules Add 3 and Add 6 would give:
0
3
6
9
12
0
6
12
18
24
and the ordered pairs would be (0,0), (3,6), (6,12), (9,18), (12,24).
I can plot ordered pairs of numbers on a coordinate graph. Understand the place value system. 5.NBT.1 Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.I know that the 2 in 234 represents 10 times as much as the 2 in 25, so 200 is ten times 20. I understand that this is how our place value system works.5.NBT.2 Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use whole number exponents to denote powers of 10.I can write any number in expanded notation showing how many zeros are in each place, or by using powers of 10. I can show how these patterns extend to decimals.5.NBT.3 Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths.
a. Read and write decimals to thousandths using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 100 + 4 10 + 7 1 + 3 (1/10) + 9 (1/100) + 2 (1/1000).
b. Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.I can read and write decimals to three places. I can compare the size of two decimal numbers and use >, = < symbols. 5.NBT.4 Use place value understanding to round decimals to any place.I can round decimal numbers to any place.Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths. 5.NBT.5 Fluently multiply multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. I can multiply multi-digit numbers by hand.5.NBT.6 Find whole-number quotients of whole numbers with up to four-digit dividends and two-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. I can divide numbers up to 4 digits by 2 digits by hand. [Students are not expected to carry out divisions into decimal places.]5.NBT.7 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.I can add or subtract decimal numbers accurately. To do this, I know that I have to line up the decimal point, so Im adding hundredths and hundredths, tenths and tenths, etc.
I can multiply or divide decimal numbers and explain why the strategy works using drawings.Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions. 5.NF.1 Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12. (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.)I can add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by finding equivalent fractions with like denominators.5.NF.2 Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions to estimate mentally and assess the reasonableness of answers. For example, recognize an incorrect result 2/5 + 1/2 = 3/7 by observing that 3/7 < 1/2. I can solve word problems that involve addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators.
I can use benchmark fractions and number sense to know if an answer is reasonable.Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions. 5.NF.3 Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3 and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50-pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?I can solve real world division problems involving whole numbers that result in a fraction, such as how much does each person get if we share 3 cookies equally among 4 people? (3/4 cookie), or how much rice does each person get if we share a 50-pound sack of rice equally among 9 people (50/9 pounds or 5 4/5 pounds).5.NF.4 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction.
a. Interpret the product (a/b) q as a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations a q b. For example, use a visual fraction model to show (2/3) 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with (2/3) (4/5) = 8/15. (In general, (a/b) (c/d) = ac/bd.)
b. Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas.I can multiply a whole number by a fraction.
I can write a story to go with this, such as: I want to save 2/3 of 6 donuts to eat later. How many is this? This is written as 2/3 x 6.
I understand that this means to divide the whole number into an equal number of groups given by the denominator (6 3), then take the number of those groups given by the numerator (2 of those parts). This is shown in the visual representation, where the answer is 4 (the shaded regions).
I can multiply a fraction by a fraction using a rectangular area picture like this one:
5.NF.5 Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing) by:
a. Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication.
b. Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence a/b = (na) / (nb) to the effect of multiplying a/b by 1.I can visualize multiplication as growing or shrinking. For example, 6 x 7 = 42 can mean 42 is 7 times larger than 6 rather than 7 groups of 6. Also 6 x 1/3 = 2 means that 2 is 1/3 as large as 6. I know that multiplying by a number greater than 1 makes the answer grow (larger) and multiplying by a number less than 1 makes the number shrink (smaller).5.NF.6 Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.I can solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers.
I can use visual fraction models and equations to solve these problems.5.NF.7 Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.
a. Interpret division of a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for (1/3) 4 and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (1/3) 4 = 1/12 because (1/12) 4 = 1/3.
b. Interpret division of a whole number by a unit fraction, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for 4 (1/5) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4 (1/5) = 20 because 20 (1/5) = 4.
c. Solve real-world problems involving division of unit fractions by non-zero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3-cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins?I can divide unit fractions by whole numbers, such as 2 and make a story to go along with this, like We have of a pizza left and want to share it equally among 2 people. How much would each person get?
I can show this on a visual fraction model.
I can divide a whole number by a fraction, such as 4 , and make a story to go along with this, like How many cup servings are in a container with 4 cups?
I can show this on a visual fraction model.Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system. 5.MD.1 Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multi-step real world problems.I can convert metric or standard measurement units such as inches to feet, cm to m.
I can solve problems that involve conversions.Represent and interpret data. 5.MD.2 Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally.I can make a line plot to represent the frequency of data points that might be measured in fractions. I can answer questions based on the data in the line plot.Geometric measurement: understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition. 5.MD.3 Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement.
a. A cube with side length 1 unit, called a unit cube, is said to have one cubic unit of volume, and can be used to measure volume.
b. A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using n unit cubes is said to have a volume of n cubic units.I understand what it means to talk about the volume of an object.5.MD.4 Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units.I can measure volume by filling an object with unit cubes and counting them.5.MD.5 Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume.
a. Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with whole-number side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent three-fold whole-number products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication.
b. Apply the formulas V =(l)(w)(h) and V = (b)(h) for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with whole-number edge lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems.
c. Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two non-overlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.I can find the volume of a box of any shape by using either formula. I know how the two formulas are connected.
I can find the volume of complex solid figures by adding the volumes of their separate parts.
Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems. 5.G.1 Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate).I can graph (x, y) coordinate points using whole numbers.
5.G.2 Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation. I can solve real world problems involving whole numbers by graphing points.Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties. 5.G.3 Understand that attributes belonging to a category of two-dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles.I can sort two-dimensional figures based on properties of their sides and angles.5.G.4 Classify two-dimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties.(see above)
In Grade 6, instructional time should focus on four critical areas:
(1) connecting ratio and rate to whole number multiplication and division and using concepts of ratio and rate to solve problems;
(2) completing understanding of division of fractions and extending the notion of number to the system of rational numbers, which includes negative numbers;
(3) writing, interpreting, and using expressions and equations;
Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.
Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities.
Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables (SBAC)
(4) developing understanding of statistical thinking.
Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions.6.NS.1 Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, create a story context for (2/3) (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (a/b) (c/d) = ad/bc.) How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 3/4-cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi?I understand what it means to divide by a fraction, and I can solve word problems that involve division with fractions.Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples. 6.NS.2 Fluently divide multi-digit numbers using the standard algorithm. I can divide multi-digit numbers without a calculator.6.NS.3 Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation.I can add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals without a calculator (I know where to place the decimal point in the answer.)6.NS.4 Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12. Use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers 1100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factor. For example, express 36 + 8 as 4 (9 + 2).I can find the greatest common factor of two numbers and use it to factor an addition expression like 36 + 8, which is 4(9 + 2).
I can find the least common multiple of two numbers.Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers. 6.NS.5 Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, debits/credits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation.I can name examples of how we use negative numbers in different situations.6.NS.6 Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number coordinates.
a. Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself, e.g., (3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite.
b. Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate plane; recognize that when two ordered pairs differ only by signs, the locations of the points are related by reflections across one or both axes.
c. Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate planeI can plot fractions and negative numbers on number lines. I can plot ordered pairs that include fractions or negative numbers on coordinate grids.6.NS.7 Understand ordering and absolute value of rational numbers.
a. Interpret statements of inequality as statements about the relative position of two numbers on a number line diagram. For example, interpret 3 > 7 as a statement that 3 is located to the right of 7 on a number line oriented from left to right.
b. Write, interpret, and explain statements of order for rational numbers in real-world contexts. For example, write 3C > 7C to express the fact that 3C is warmer than 7C.
c. Understand the absolute value of a rational number as its distance from 0 on the number line; interpret absolute value as magnitude for a positive or negative quantity in a real-world situation. For example, for an account balance of 30 dollars, write |30| = 30 to describe the size of the debt in dollars.
d. Distinguish comparisons of absolute value from statements about order. For example, recognize that an account balance less than 30 dollars represents a debt greater than 30 dollars.I can use less than and greater than signs correctly. I know that negative numbers get smaller as we move to the left (or down) on a number line.
I understand what absolute value means. 6.NS.8 Solve real-world and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane. Include use of coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate.I can find the perimeter and area of a rectangle that is plotted on a coordinate plane (with sides parallel to the axes).
Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems. 6.RP.1 Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. For example, The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because for every 2 wings there was 1 beak. For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes. I can use ratios to describe everyday situations. 6.RP.2 Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b `" 0 (b not equal to zero), and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. For example, "This recipe has a ratio of 3 cups of flour to 4 cups of sugar, so there is 3/4 cup of flour for each cup of sugar." "We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per hamburger." (Expectations for unit rates in this grade are limited to non-complex fractions.)I can find the unit rate if I know the ratio between two quantities.6.RP.3 Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations.
a. Make tables of equivalent ratios relating quantities with whole-number measurements, find missing values in the tables, and plot the pairs of values on the coordinate plane. Use tables to compare ratios.
b. Solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed. For example, If it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what rate were lawns being mowed?
c. Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole given a part and the percent.
d. Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities.I can write a table of equal ratios for a real-world situation, and use the table to solve problems. I can write an equation for a real-world situation that involves a ratio and use the equation to solve problems.
I can solve problems that involve unit rates like miles per hour or unit prices like $2 per pound.
I can solve percent problems.
I can convert measurement units, like feet to inches, and solve problems involving measurements in different units.Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions. 6.EE.1 Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents.I can evaluate expressions that include exponents, like (2+5)2.6.EE.2 Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.
a. Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. For example, express the calculation Subtract y from 5 as 5 y.
b. Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For example, describe the expression 2(8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms.
c. Evaluate expressions at specific values for their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas in real-world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the formulas V = s^3 and A = 6 s^2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length s = 1/2.I can write expressions that use variables or unknowns to represent situations.
I can read expressions using correct mathematical terms like sum, product, term, coefficient, etc. For example, 2(8+7) is read as the product of 2 and the sum of 8 and 7.
I can evaluate expressions that include variables given values for the variables.
I know how to evaluate expressions using the correct order of operations.6.EE.3 Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. For example, apply the distributive property to the expression 3(2 + x) to produce the equivalent expression 6 + 3x; apply the distributive property to the expression 24x + 18y to produce the equivalent expression 6 (4x + 3y); apply properties of operations to y + y + y to produce the equivalent expression 3y.I can simplify or expand expressions.6.EE.4 Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for.I can tell when two expressions are equivalent.Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities. 6.EE.5 Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true.I can solve an equation by substituting numbers from a set to see which makes the equation true.6.EE.6 Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set.I can write expressions using letters to represent unknown numbers in order to solve problems.6.EE.7 Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers.I can solve problems by writing equations with an unknown, such as x + p = q and px = q.
Notes: Constants p & q can be fractions, but not negative numbers; the solution to x + p = q could be negative depending on the sizes of p and q. Students do not develop proficiency involving operations with negative numbers until 7th grade.
The addition form could also be p + x = q for examples such as Annie has $30. How much more does she need to earn to buy new pants that cost $55? or An elephant is 4 times bigger than a cow. A cow is 5 1/2 feet high. How high is the elephant? 6.EE.8 Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams.I know what inequalities such as x > c or x < c mean. I can use them in problems.Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables. 6.EE.9 Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time.I can write equations for real-world situations that use two variables (functions) and make tables of values for them. I can graph the table of values. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, I can list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time.
Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.6.G.1 Find area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.I can find the area of triangles by seeing that they are 1/2 of the area of a rectangle. I can find the area of other shapes like parallelograms by decomposing them into triangles and/or rectangles.6.G.2 Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.I understand what it means to find the volume of a right rectangular prism like a cube or box. I can also use formulas to find the volume in word problems. These formulas could include fractions as lengths of the sides.6.G.3 Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.I can draw polygons when I know the coordinates of each vertex. I can solve problems involving these drawings, including finding the lengths of sides that are horizontal or vertical.6.G.4 Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.I can open up and lay flat a three-dimensional figure to make its net. I can use the net to find the surface area of the figure.Develop understanding of statistical variability. 6.SP.1 Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, How old am I? is not a statistical question, but How old are the students in my school? is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students ages.I can tell whether a question is a statistical question, if there is some variability in the answers. For example, How old am I? is not a statistical question because there is only one answer, but How old are the students in my school? is a statistical question because there are differences in students ages.6.SP.2 Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.(see CC.6.SP.5)6.SP.3 Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number.(see CC.6.SP.5)Summarize and describe distributions. 6.SP.4 Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots.I can make dot plots, histograms and box plots to show data.6.SP.5 Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as:
a. Reporting the number of observations.
b. Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement.
c. Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data was gathered.
d. Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data was gatheredI can calculate median, mean, interquartile range and mean absolute deviation for a set of data. I understand what these represent for the set of data. Use these as appropriate to summarize data sets given the context in which the data was gathered.
In Grade 7, instructional time should focus on four critical areas:
(1) developing understanding of and applying proportional relationships;
(2) developing understanding of operations with rational numbers and working with expressions and linear equations;
(3) solving problems involving scale drawings and informal geometric constructions, and working with two- and three-dimensional shapes to solve problems involving area, surface area, and volume; and
(4) drawing inferences about populations based on samples.
Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers. 7.NS.1 Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and subtract rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram.
a. Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0. For example, a hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely charged.
b. Understand p + q as the number located a distance |q| from p, in the positive or negative direction depending on whether q is positive or negative. Show that a number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts.
c. Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse, p q = p + (q). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in real-world contexts.
d. Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract rational numbers7.NS.2 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers.
a. Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations, particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as (1)(1) = 1 and the rules for multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts.
b. Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every quotient of integers (with non-zero divisor) is a rational number. If p and q are integers then (p/q) = (p)/q = p/(q). Interpret quotients of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts.
c. Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational numbers.
d. Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats.7.NS.3 Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers. (Computations with rational numbers extend the rules for manipulating fractions to complex fractions.)Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. 7.RP.1 Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. For example, if a person walks 1/2 mile in each 1/4 hour, compute the unit rate as the complex fraction (1/2)/(1/4) miles per hour, equivalently 2 miles per hour.7.RP.2 Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.
a. Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin.
b. Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships.
c. Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total cost t is proportional to the number n of items purchased at a constant price p, the relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as t = pn.
d. Explain what a point (x, y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0, 0) and (1, r) where r is the unit rate.7.RP.3 Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems. Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, percent error.Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. 7.EE.1 Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients.7.EE.2 Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that increase by 5% is the same as multiply by 1.05.Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.7.EE.3 Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations as strategies to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. 7.EE.4 Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.
a. Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px + q = r and p(x + q) = r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width?
b. Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form px + q > r or px + q < r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem. For example, As a salesperson, you are paid $50 per week plus $3 per sale. This week you want your pay to be at least $100. Write an inequality for the number of sales you need to make, and describe the solutions.Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationships between them. 7.G.1 Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale.7.G.2 Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on constructing triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle.7.G.3 Describe the two-dimensional figures that result from slicing three-dimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids. Solve real-life and mathematical problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, and volume. 7.G.4 Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle.7.G.5 Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multi-step problem to write and solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure. 7.G.6 Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population. 7.SP.1 Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences.7.SP.2 Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be.Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. 7.SP.3 Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable.Recognize visually and numerically when two sets are statistically different because the difference of the means of the two sets is at least twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) of either set.7.SP.4 Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventh-grade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourth-grade science book.Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models.7.SP.5 Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event.7.SP.6 Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its long-run relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times.7.SP.7 Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy.
a. Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected.
b. Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land open-end down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies?7.SP.8 Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation.
a. Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs.
b. Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., rolling double sixes), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event.
c. Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood?
In Grade 8, instructional time should focus on three critical areas:
(1) formulating and reasoning about expressions and equations, including modeling an association in bivariate data with a linear equation, and solving linear equations and systems of linear equations;
(2) grasping the concept of a function and using functions to describe quantitative relationships;
(3) analyzing two- and three-dimensional space and figures using distance, angle, similarity, and congruence, and understanding and applying the Pythagorean Theorem.
Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers. 8.NS.1.
Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number.8.NS.2 Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., ^2). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of "2 (square root of 2), show that "2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations.Work with radicals and integer exponents. 8.EE.1 Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 3^2 3^( 5) = 3^( 3) = 1/(3^3) = 1/27.8.EE.2 Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x^2 = p and x^3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that "2 is irrational.8.EE.3 Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 10^8 and the population of the world as 7 10^9, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.8.EE.4 Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations. 8.EE.5 Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.8.EE.6 Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y =mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations. 8.EE.7 Solve linear equations in one variable.
a. Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).
b. Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.8.EE.8 Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
a. Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.
b. Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.
c. Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair.Define, evaluate, and compare functions. 8.F.1 Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. (Function notation is not required in Grade 8.)8.F.2 Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change. 8.F.3 Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s^2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.Use functions to model relationships between quantities. 8.F.4 Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.8.F.5 Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software. 8.G.1 Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations:
a. Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length.
b. Angles are taken to angles of the same measure.
c. Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.8.G.2 Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them.8.G.3 Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations and reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates.8.G.4 Understand that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two-dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them.8.G.5 Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the three angles appear to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so.Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem. 8.G.6 Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse. 8.G.7 Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions.8.G.8 Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system.Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones and spheres. 8.G.9 Know the formulas for the volume of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data. 8.SP.1 Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.8.SP.2 Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationshBCh g
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Common Core State Standards
OA Operations & Algebraic Thinking, NBT Number & Operations, NF Number & Operations Fractions, MD Measurement & Data, G Geometry
p. PAGE 21
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